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  1. C4D Hub: Develop program theory or logic model

    Development Theme

    What is it?

    A program theory or logic model explains how the activities of an intervention are understood to contribute to a chain of results (short-term outputs, medium-term outcomes) that produce ultimate intended or actual impacts. It can be shown in the form inputs->processes->outputs ->outcomes -> impacts but sometimes other forms are more useful.

  2. Monitoring and Evaluation for Impact Investing

    Impact investment aims to create positive social change alongside financial returns, thereby creating blended value. Impact investments differ from earlier forms of socially aligned or socially responsible investments in that the intention behind the impact investment is to have a positive effect on society as opposed to merely avoiding negative effects (Flynn, Young, & Barnett, 2015 p.11). Assessing the intended and actual blended value created is an important part of impact investing.

  3. Impact evaluation

    Development Theme

    An impact evaluation provides information about the impacts produced by an intervention - positive and negative, intended and unintended, direct and indirect. This means that an impact evaluation must establish what has been the cause of observed changes (in this case ‘impacts’) referred to as causal attribution (also referred to as causal inference).

  4. C4D Hub: Simple, Complicated, Complex: meanings and implications

    Development Theme

    The Simple, Complicated, Complex typology


    Simple, ‘known’  

    Standardised – a single way to do it

    Works pretty much the same everywhere / for everyone

    Best practices can be recommended confidently

    Knowledge transfer

    Impact focus: did it work or is it still working?

  5. Feminist evaluation

    Feminist evaluation (FE) emphasizes participatory, empowering, and social justice agendas. While all evaluation approaches are laden with their own, often implicit, values, few assert their values as openly as feminist evaluation. Unlike most gender approaches, feminist evaluation does not provide a framework or advocate a precise approach; rather, feminist evaluation is often defined as a way of thinking about evaluation. (See, for example, Podems, 2014; Podems 2010; Beardsley & Hughes Miller, 2002; Hirsch & Keller, 1990; Hughes, 2002; McRobbie, 1982).

  6. Evaluating Capacity Development Results

    Development Theme

    Unlike programs supporting health, livelihoods, and other impact areas, capacity development does not have stand-alone outcomes. Instead, capacity development supports a diverse set of goals in different sectors, at different levels, through different activities. Capacity development consequently presents multiple monitoring and evaluation opportunities and challenges for practitioners.  Some important issues surrounding capacity development and evaluation are:

  7. C4D Hub: Check the results support causal attribution (strategy 2)

    Development Theme

    What is it?

  8. C4D Hub: Decide Purpose

    Development Theme

    What is it?

  9. C4D Hub: Specify the key R,MandE questions

    Development Theme

    What is it?

  10. Sustained and Emerging Impacts Evaluation (SEIE)