Commonly used on maps, and x/y-axis plots, or no plot at all, bubble charts communicate the raw count, frequency, or proportion of some variable where the size of the bubble reflects the quantity. Color-coding bubbles can represent a further categorization of the variable being graphed. It is also possible to add another dimension by showing the movement of bubbles over time (referred to as a motion chart).
A concept map shows how different ideas relate to each other - sometimes this is called a mind map or a cluster map. This option can be used for the task of negotiating values and standards, and is useful for framing the evaluation. Concept Mapping can be used before, during or after implementation of a project/program/policy. It is necessarily done in a group and it requires sufficient time (the group needs to provide input individually and then meet) and specialist software.
This blog post from Jean-Martin Bauer, Koffi Akakpo, Marie Enlund and Silvia Passeri for Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN) analyses the results of a household food security assessment conducted for the World Food Program (WFP) using mobile text to gather the data for the survey. Conducted in North Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of Congo at a time of active conflict and large scale displacement the results demonstrate the viability of using mobile data collection but only when used with more traditional forms of surveys due to the lack of access to mobile phones of up to 50% of the households in the area.
This guide, written by Gareth Benest for InsightShare, provides advice running community screenings as part of a participatory video process. It outlines the process of planning and delivering effective screenings and offers a range of practical suggestions, facilitator tips and case studies of successful screenings.
This guide, written by Jacques M Chevalier and Daniel J Buckles for Participatory Action Research, provides a set of tools and processes that can be used to engage people in complex settings with a range of stakeholders. The tools are participatory in nature and easily accessible to beginners or those more experienced in participatory evaluation. The guide outlines a step-by-step process for using each tool and includes completed examples t demonstrate how it can be used. It also includes tips on use and links to other resources which may be better suited to a particular aspect being evaluated.
In this book Derek Beach and Rasmus Brun Pedersen refine the definition of process tracing by breaking it into three different variants. They describe the strengths and weaknesses of each of these variants and outline steps for identifying which one to use based on the research question. They also provide a guidelines for each step of the research process.
Case selection techniques in Process-tracing and the implications of taking the study of causal mechanisms seriously
This paper by Derek Beach and Rasmus Brun Pedersen analyses the three variants of process tracing and goes on to develop guidelines for using each of them.
This paper, from David Collier, outlines a new framework for carrying out process tracing in order to achieve greater systemisation of qualitative methods. Collier argues that when process tracing is used often it is not adequately understood nor rigorously applied and therefore through this framework he hopes to address this problem. The article includes links to online teaching exercises to support the model.
This example of a SWOT Analysis from Lucidchart uses two fictional characters, Superman and Elizabeth Bennet from Pride and Prejudice, to demonstrate how the tool can be used to closely examine strong and weak points. It also includes a detailed analysis of the SWOT Analysis of the respective characters.
- ManageMANAGE an evaluation or evaluation system
- DefineDEFINE what is to be evaluated
- FrameFRAME the boundaries for an evaluation
- DescribeDESCRIBE activities, outcomes, impacts and context
- Understand causesUNDERSTAND CAUSES of outcomes and impacts
- SynthesiseSYNTHESISE data from one or more evaluations
- Report & support useREPORT & SUPPORT USE of findings
MANAGE an evaluation or evaluation system
Manage an evaluation (or a series of evaluations), including deciding who will conduct the evaluation and who will make decisions about it. Read more.
DEFINE what is to be evaluated
Develop a description (or access an existing version) of what is to be evaluated and how it understood to work. Read more.
FRAME the boundaries for an evaluation
Set the parameters of the evaluation – its purposes, key evaluation questions and the criteria and standards to be used. Read more.
DESCRIBE activities, outcomes, impacts and context
Collect and retrieve data to answer descriptive questions about the activities of the project/program/ policy, the various results it has had, and the context in which it has been implemented. Read more.
UNDERSTAND CAUSES of outcomes and impacts
Collect and analyze data to answer causal questions about what has produced outcomes and impacts that have been observed. Read more.
SYNTHESISE data from one or more evaluations
Combine data to form an overall assessment of the merit or worth of the intervention, or to summarize evidence across several evaluations. Read more.
REPORT & SUPPORT USE of findings
Develop and present findings in ways that are useful for the intended users of the evaluation, and support them to make use of them. Read more.